Tuesday, 31 March 2015

Power lithium battery high demand in 2014 will meet the explosive growth of the future

ufo battery offical site
2014, the number of new cars in the global energy yield sales USA, China, Japan, the European Union and other countries and regions, led by more than 300,000, only China's new energy vehicle production in 2014 reached 83,900. The rapid development of new energy automotive industry, so that the global growth in demand for lithium battery power significantly. According to statistics, in 2014 the world's lithium-ion battery shipments reached 10012.8MWH.
Recalling 2014, AESC, BYD and LG lithium battery shipments over 1GWH, to become the world's top three manufacturers of lithium battery. In 2014, about 800MWH Panasonic lithium battery shipments, SDI, LEJ, Hefei, China Xuan and other enterprises Air lithium lithium battery shipments ranking. AESC batteries which are mainly supplied to the Nissan LEAF and the Renault Kangoo ZE, 24AH batteries using NCM ternary system; LG major supplier to the Chevrolet Volt, Renault ZOE, Volvo V 60 Plug-in other models, the use of the ternary system battery; Panasonic major supplier to the Toyota Prius Plug-in, Ford Fusion Energi, Ford C-Max Energi, Volkswagen e-up and other models; the main supply models SDI for BMW I3 and I8 other models, LEJ Mitsubishi I-miev, Mitsubishi Outlander PHEV and other battery powered vehicles.

Our power lithium battery manufacturers mainly concentrated in Guangdong, Shandong, Jiangsu, Zhejiang, Tianjin and other places, the Chinese enterprises in 2014 the basic use of lithium iron phosphate batteries. 2015 began, there have been a number of domestic models such as EV200, Zotye cloud 100, the second generation of BMW's promise, JAC began using ternary battery batteries. There are rumors that a number of domestic car companies are working with Panasonic negotiations, the intentional introduction of its 18650 NCA batteries fitted to their new energy vehicles. So you can see, the future of the ternary material will become the main power lithium battery cathode material. Currently the major battery plant is actively preparing, and expand the sources of procurement of raw materials, for laying the foundation for the upcoming expansion wave.
Ministry data show that two months of 2015, China produced a total of about 12,000 new energy vehicles. Market analysts said that with all levels of government continue to overweight new energy automotive industry policy, this year China's new energy vehicle population is expected to exceed 20 million units, and as a core component of the electric vehicle battery market demand will be explosive, lithium ion battery market officially entered the golden period.
Relevant institutions predict that by 2020, car ownership in China will reach 200 million, according to the new energy vehicles accounted for 2% of the total vehicle computing, when China's new energy vehicle ownership will reach as many as 4 million. According to the estimated growth curve in 2020, China's annual production of new energy vehicles will be about 1 million. According to a conservative car loaded 30kwh battery, the annual consumption of battery power will reach 30 million kwh, the annual consumption of about 50,000 tons cathode material, anode material about 2.5 million tons, about 28,000 tons of electrolyte, separator of about 400 million square meters. At the current yield calculated on battery power, 2020 will be the expansion of our battery 8x power lithium battery industry will usher in the explosive growth and related industries to flourish.

More about UFO Lithium battery: http://www.ufo-battery.com/category/lithium-polymer-battery

LG Chem will provide the lithium battery cell Daimler Smart EV

K-car News LG Chem has released an official statement saying that Daimler has selected the company as a supplier of lithium batteries, will provide Smart EV battery, which models will be launched in 2016.

LG Chem will provide Daimler cell, battery pack assembly by Daimler.
Last August, LG Chemical also received orders for Audi's battery, which provides support for plug-in hybrid vehicle lineup. The company also noted that the future is expected to get more orders from Audi's parent company Volkswagen Group.
In the field of automotive batteries, LG Chemical has gained 20 customers, including General Motors; the company's goal is to overall sales in 2018 will increase to a large battery of 10 trillion won (US $ 9.8 billion) or more.

Friday, 6 March 2015

How to Save Power for Your Iphone6? Iphone6 Saving Power Tips

1, Note the signal strength
One culprit phone battery consumption is often quick search weak signal, but for us, but there is no way. If you are in a relatively poor signal areas, consider temporarily switch to flight mode, not iPhone constantly searching weak signal. Also Wi-Fi can be used under the conditions as much as possible with Wi-Fi, cellular data equally unstable cell phone battery will bring relatively large consumption.

2, closed useless notification center applications
Many applications in the notification center will continue to push the message that you really need it? I think most people are not yes. Each application will consume little power push notifications, so we have to cut off the source. To "Settings", "Notification Center" go close it, and do not forget to turn off the sound alerts and icon.
3, change the display settings
Display is power-hungry, and therefore do not have the time necessary to make it fast closing. To "Settings", "universal", "auto lock screen" in the look, will automatically lock the time to adjust to the relatively short range. In addition, we can also to set the brightness of the wallpaper and close the "Auto Brightness" adjustment, so that the screen is always in a state under a relatively dark, you can also save a lot of power, after all, we only need a relatively large in the case of direct sunlight brightness, and this situation does not always occur relatively.
4. Disable animation
If you do not cold dynamic background and visual difference, 3D effects, then the same can be closed off. Although they look interesting, but also consume more power. We can go to the set of "wallpaper and brightness", select a static image as wallpaper, and in the "General", "Accessibility" close animation.
5, reduce application background refresh
People like between different applications constantly switching back and forth, but you know too many applications running in the background is also very power it? You can close out the background to set the refresh most applications. This is particularly true in the background refresh Facebook application, really special power. Reload each time you want to use, is a more effective method of saving.
6, collect email manually
Push e-mail first thing for some people it is very convenient, but also depends on whether or not to open the frequency and intensity of your e-mail. If we allow the system to receive five minutes once every mailing list in the background than to manually refresh a lot more power. Suppose if you only need a few hours to see a mailbox for each can, then there is no need to let the system automatically collect e-mail in the background. To get to the settings to adjust it.
7, close positioning
Unless it is a map so you must use the positioning application, otherwise location tracking in fact not much use, it is also very power-hungry features.
To "Settings", "Privacy" in the closed position location services, or keep those applications must be positioned, the other useless are turned off. In addition, "Location Services" in the "System Services", there are many built-in functions can be canceled positioning systems, such as location-based advertising iAd based diagnosis and dosage reminders and location and so on.
8, keeping the environment cool
Also affect the temperature of the battery life, do not take iPhone6 put under direct sunlight. When play the big game, or watching online videos, mobile phone batteries can also cause fever, may wish to stop and take a break, so that the temperature decreases and then continue it.
9. Turn off Automatic Updates
Generally, either the application or system update will bring new features, but always automatically updated, will consume electricity at inopportune times. To the "Settings" in the closed iOS system, automatic updates, and "iTunes and App Store" closes the application automatically download the update, it will also save power, even if the hand update, but also choose the next Wi-Fi environment.
10, turn off Siri
If you do not regularly use Siri, you can go to the "Settings", "universal" in the turn off Siri, because when you're not careful it does not touch the Home key to retrieve the start Siri.
11, turn off the vibration
In the "Settings", "voice" can choose to turn off vibration, while the "Mail" set in vibration close the new e-mail alert, doing so will really save you a lot of power.
12, turn off iCloud
We enter into iCloud setup, you will look at cloud sync you will consume a lot of data and power, of course, the case that you can connect the phone back on the charger sync iCloud backups can also be a very good save important data.
In fact, we often feel that their phone is power, why was not any electricity on out shabu, in fact, many times this is with some of your habits with the machine, we want to get rid of those bad habits with the machine, we recommend you Some applications do not back off, to reduce unnecessary start-up items, I hope that today's 12 iPhone6 saving tips for you to help.

Thursday, 5 March 2015

Apple was sued by Electric Car Battery Manufacturer

Apple is working with an electric car battery manufacturer to discuss together to solve the legal proceedings, this battery manufacturer accused Apple of illegal employment of their key engineers, and work for Apple's new battery business.


A123 Systems filed in Massachusetts last month to federal court lawsuit against Apple and five former employees of A123 Systems, which several Apple employees now work. The lawsuit against Apple in the last year has taken "aggressive actions", which won over the implementation of key development and testing activities of employees. The lawsuit seems to provide further evidence that Apple has developed an electric vehicle that goal.

On Tuesday, Apple has made an application to the court, and they hope to get more time to respond to the lawsuit, they said it is exploring alternatives and potential plaintiffs plan to solve this problem.

A123 Systems is committed to developing an energy storage system that is suitable for a variety of commercial and industrial applications, including advanced energy storage for electric vehicles. A123 Systems for the bus company to build lithium-ion hybrid system to any other manufacturer in the world to be more than.

Apple hired five employees accused of execution in the lawsuit with Apple in the same function, in violation of the employees to sign non-compete and confidentiality agreements. Although in many US states that non-compete clause in the law is enforced without, but in Massachusetts, which is A123 Systems is allowed to sue the place of the agreement.

Apple rumors began to develop electric cars last month, rumors indicate that Apple is the formation of a team responsible for the design of electric vehicles, this team is by Tesla and other auto companies to recruit people who co-founded. And A123 Systems developed technology will be the key technology for electric cars on the roads.

Thursday, 26 February 2015

The new lithium battery electrolyte substantially increase the efficiency and service life

US Department of Energy scientists at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory have developed a new type of electrolyte, lithium-ion batteries can not only solve the problem of short circuit fire, but also a substantial increase in battery performance and life. The researchers said the discovery could lead to the next generation of more powerful and practical rechargeable batteries, such as lithium sulfur and lithium-air and lithium metal batteries.

US Department of Energy scientists at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory have developed a new type of electrolyte, lithium-ion batteries can not only solve the problem of short circuit fire, but also a substantial increase in battery performance and life. The researchers said the discovery could lead to the next generation of more powerful and practical rechargeable batteries, such as lithium sulfur and lithium-air and lithium metal batteries.
Most rechargeable batteries are lithium ion batteries, lithium or other anode materials, cathode is usually made of graphite. When the battery is connected, the electrons flow between the poles will generate electricity. In order to control electronics, lithium-ion with a positive charge will be via the electrolyte from pole to pole. But the low storage capacity of graphite, which limits the capacity of the lithium-ion battery. So during the 1970s, people developed a lithium-based rechargeable battery cathodes. Chose lithium than graphite because it has more than 10 times more storage capacity. But the problem is that this will lead to dendritic growth of lithium dendrites on the microscopic appearance, so that the battery short-circuit faults. Over the years many people have tried to solve this problem.
There scientists are using a protective coating the anode material, and some others produced the electrolyte additives. Some solutions indeed eliminate dendrites, but also led to a significant reduction in battery power and electricity. There are other solutions to this phenomenon can only slow down, but can not let dendrites stop growing.
Yesterday the media reported that the US Department of Energy by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory developed a new type of electrolyte which not only the perfect solution dendritic problem, but also help to play 99% of the lithium-ion battery performance, the energy density per unit area increased by 10 times.
Responsible for the study of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory physicist Zhang Jiguang (transliteration) said today widely used in rechargeable lithium-ion battery capacity is approaching its peak, should be to lithium as the anode design re-examined. Based on previous research, Zhang Jiguang and his colleagues decided to use lithium imide salt contains a large double (sulfuryl fluoride) as a new type of battery electrolyte. In addition, they also added a substance is known dimethoxyethane.
Researchers created a circular test cell. Using the new electrolyte and a lithium anode in a battery. It was found that only the presence of a lithium anode produced some smooth lithium node without a large number of fibrous dendrites. After 1000 charge-discharge cycles, the test battery power is still the initial value of 98.4%, the energy density was maintained at 4 mA per square centimeter.
This new electrolyte is very efficient, but also provides a new possibility. Today cell cathode consists essentially of graphite coated with a thin metal sheet or the like of the active material of lithium made. The metal foil is known as the collector, because our mobile phones and other electrical appliances is to obtain the current through it. The need for coating the active material in the above, because by far the majority of the electrolyte during the battery operation will consume lithium ions. However, over 99% of the efficiency of the electrolyte means that only the possibility of creating a negative current collector and the active material is not coated cathode. This is expected to significantly reduce production costs and battery size, it will significantly improve the safety of these batteries.
Researchers are evaluating various additives to further improve the performance of the electrolyte, the lithium ion battery reaches 99.9% efficiency.

Friday, 6 February 2015

Super Capacitors and Super Capacitor Battery Technology Becoming Popular


When the industry agreed that the lithium-ion battery is still the main mode of electric vehicles energy reserves, some companies have already begun to consider the use of forward-looking ultracapacitor products as a lithium-ion battery is good supplementary equipment.

Compared to conventional batteries, super capacitor can store electricity is not much, so the super capacitor and can not be used as a power supply device. Super capacitor has the ability to quickly release the stored energy, while the performance will not be completed in a short time to reduce the charge and repeatedly after charging.

Recently, the South Korean electronics company claims will invest $ 9 million to expand its transportation, power systems and consumer electronics products with super capacitor capacity. In the United States, has the ability to design and manufacture products for the material and super capacitor electrolyte companies Graphene Energy, EnerG2 and Ioxus three. Another company from a venture capital firm EEStor Kleiner Perkins Caufield & Byers as a background, currently the company has signed a supply agreement with the super capacitor electric car company Zenn.

Currently, there are already ultracapacitor products are used in consumer electronics products in the field, and some experts expect super capacitor as a supplement to green energy can make batteries, fuel cells, solar power or wind power and other more perfect way.

Technology industry consultants from Cambridge, IDTechEx chairman, said a combination of super capacitors (supercapacitor) with the advantages of lithium-ion batteries, and can be a car engine to charge the new type of thermal power storage device, will be the future include ideal power source for industrial transport trucks, military vehicles.

According to reports, this super-capacitor battery with a battery and super capacitor characteristics, usually somewhere in between; the power storage device has to lead-acid batteries or nickel batteries based versions, and the market's main concern is the use of lithium-ion type electrodes and supercapacitor electrodes, those asymmetric electrochemical double layer capacitor is also called a lithium ion capacitor, because the charge and discharge faster, and have other more excellent characteristics, a substituted Li-ion batteries and ultracapacitors potential .

Currently, the super-capacitor battery is gaining global carmakers each prospective favor, including BMW, Ford and other well-known brands. It is predicted that by 2020 the super capacitor battery will be common to all of the hybrid vehicle equipped with a thermoelectric energy harvesting devices and to further expand its market territory, gave birth to smaller super-capacitor battery. For example, the US predicted that by 2020, the use of such devices can be reduced by 70% of energy consumption

Sunday, 1 February 2015

Mapping Mechanical Properties of Lithium/Polymer Battery Composites with Nanoindentation

Introduction

The primary purpose of the work presented herein is to investigate the mechanical properties of a lithium rechargeable battery cathode1-3 by utilizing both the classic XP CSM and newer, ultrafast DCM Express Test methods with a Nano Indenter G200 (Keysight Technologies). Scanning electron microscopy analysis is used as a support to understand the obtained results and gain information about the differences between the two adopted nanoindentation methods.
Particular attention is focused on the analysis of the mechanical and elastic properties of new-generation lithium/polymer electrodes, with the final aim of correlating the life cycle and the number of charge and discharge cycles with the mechanical properties of the electrodes.
By employing an improved grid nanoindentation method4-6, it is possible to perform a statistical deconvolution of the mechanical properties and to understand how many (and which) heterogeneous material phases there are as well as how they interact among themselves.
A final aspect of interestrelated to the lithium/polymer batteries is to investigate the mutual mechanical interactions among the different components in order to gain information on the correlation between chemical and mechanical properties.
A lithium/polymer battery1-3 is made of lithium-polymer conductive composite materials, obtained by embedding lithium salt solutions in opportune polymeric matrix. The polymeric cells have a flexible sheet structure, so external pressure is not needed since the electrode sheets and the separator (dielectric) are laminated one on top of the other.
This kind of battery has the significant advantage of being realized in any form or dimension and, owing to the lack of usefulness of any metal container, the battery could be lighter and shaped to fill the space reserved for it. An example of a cathode’s microstructure is shown in Figure 1a.
Figure 1. (a) Example of a microstructure of a lithium/polymer battery cathode. (b) Principle of property deconvolution using the cumulative distribution function (CDF).
The principal critical issue associated with the functional behavior of such devices, however, is intrinsically related to the strong difference, in terms of mechanical properties, between the two main components of the composite material. In light of this, evaluating the mechanical properties of such materials by using proper nanomechanical testing is extremely important.
Here, we report on an investigation of mechanical properties using an improved statistical nanoindentation method, described in the next section. The developed procedures allow the accurate determination of the elastic and plastic properties of each single phase, together with a careful analysis of the gradients of the same properties within single particles, an aspect that becomes more important when analyzing the mechanical property loss after several charge/discharge cycles.

Statistical Nanoindentation Method

The statistical (or grid) nanoindentation method was originally proposed for cement-based materials4. The method consists of the realization of grids of hundreds of indentation tests, coupled with a statistical analysis (deconvolution) of either the elastic modulus or hardness data for the identification of the different mechanical phases and their distribution over the sampled area.
The deconvolution process is applied to the cumulative distribution function (CDF) of obtained data and utilized to get the weighted sum of hoarded curves that best fit the empirical cumulative probability distribution.
A generic cumulative distribution function (CDF) is given by:

Where Dj(x) is the hoarded probability distribution of the j phase:
with i E [1,N] being
There are 3n-1 unknowns, which are calculated imposing that the theoretical function has a minimal square deviation compared with the empirical cumulative probability curve shown from the indentation tests:
j, sj, fj) from min
Where Fi are the empirical values of the cumulative probability corresponding to the i-class.
The principle of the method is reported in Figure 1b.
Employing the cumulative function is extremely useful when the number of phases in the material under investigation is mostly unknown; in fact, when the cumulative experimental function is built, it is possible to find the polynomial that best fits the cumulative curve (see Figure 1).
The number of phases can be correlated to the polynomial order of the CDF that best fits the experimental cumulative curve. If n is the polynomial order of the CDF, the number of real phases will be equal to n-2 (i.e., the number of flexes).

Experimental Details

A lithium-ion battery cathode, composed of a mixture of active particles (LiMn2O4) and carbon black in a polymeric matrix of polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF), was embedded in epoxy and mirror- polished before mechanical testing. The cathode thickness is about 150µm. Lithium particles exhibit significant variance in their size and internal porosity, as shown in Figure 2, leading to a different response in terms of mechanical properties.
Figure 2. (a) XP CSM nanoindentation grid. (b) DCM Express nanoindentation grid. (c) XP CSM standard – hardness [GPa], calculated at depth 100 nm. (d) DCM Express – hardness [GPa]. (e) XP CSM standard – modulus [GPa], calculated at depth 100 nm. (f) DCM Express – modulus [GPa].
The methodology developed in this work is mostly based on the combined and synergic application of several experimental techniques:
  • Scanning electron microscopy morphological analysis before and after nanoindentation testing
  • Nanoindentation tests with standard XP CSM mode and DCM Express Test mode
  • Improved statistical analysis, consisting of 2D mapping of mechanical properties (elastic modulus E, hardness H) as well as deconvolution of the cumulative distribution functions for the analysis of single-phase mechanical properties
The deconvolution process is performed using a MATLAB-based routine.
XP CSM tests were performed using a Berkovich tip, with a frequency of 45Hz, amplitude of oscillation 2 nm, constant strain rate 0.05s-1, and maximum penetration depth 150nm (which roughly corresponds to 1.0µm of lateral dimension of indents). The results allow the statistical analysis of obtained data at different penetration depths.
A grid of 20x20 indents was realized; spacing between indents was fixed at 10µm. Thus, any mutual interactions between contiguous indentation marks can be assumed to be negligible. Shallower indents would be required for a finer mesh. A full weekend session was needed to complete 1 matrix (400 indents).
DCM ultrafast tests were performed using the Keysight Express Test method and a Berkovich tip, fixing a maximum depth of 80 nm, a spacing of 1.5µm, and an area of analysis of 50x50 µm2. Six different matrices were performed in a single session (roughly 2 hours to realize more than 5000 indents).
The Nano Indenter G200 was completely re-calibrated (area function and frame stiffness), both before and after testing, by performing a series of indentations on a certified amorphous fused-silica reference sample. Detailed microstructural and compositional observation of the same areas of the tests were finally performed by scanning electron microscopy analysis.

Results and Discussion

The obtained mechanical maps (Figures 2c–f) show a good representation of the actual microstructure and phase distribution, in comparison with the scanning electron microscopy images (Figures 2a–b). After a careful analysis of both the load-displacement curves and the scanning electron microscopy images, all the out-of-range tests were clearly correlated to the presence of micro-cracks or porosity in correspondence with the indentations.
The CSM approach mode used in the tests with the XP indenter head is useful to highlight that the mechanical maps at the three different depths (i.e., 50, 100, 150nm) show, with qualitative agreement, different values of hardness and elastic modulus. This is due to the effects of the surrounding compliant matrix on the stiffer particles.
Modulus and hardness values increase (on average) with decreasing indentation depth when looking at the CSM data. The gradients of hardness and modulus over a single particle are reduced with decreasing penetration depth. This is a direct consequence of the relevance of the edge effects, which obviously are reduced as the penetration depth is reduced.
The XP CSM method makes it possible to choose, for the calculation of the average value of hardness and elastic modulus, the range of displacement into the surface. In this work, the ranges selected are 45–55, 95–105, and 145–155.
The XP CSM method permits discrimination between the artifacts of roughness effects, which affect the lower displacement, and of substrate influence, which affect the higher displacement. This second effect is particularly significant in the evaluation of elastic modulus, which is a massive property.
The XP CSM data, however, proved insufficient to achieve reliable deconvolution of the actual mechanical properties, due to the limited number of valid tests that can be obtained in a reasonable amount of time. Use of the Express Test method was then required in order to gain more reliable information on the single-phase hardness and modulus (see Figure 3).
Figure 3. (a) CDF analysis (for the hardness) on 400 indents obtained by the conventional XP CSM method at 100nm depth. (b) CDF analysis (for the elastic modulus) on 400 indents obtained by the conventional XP CSM method at 100nm depth. (c) CDF analysis (for the hardness) on 900 indents obtained by the DCM Express method at 80nm depth. (d) CDF analysis (for the elastic modulus) on 900 indents obtained by the DCM Express method at 80nm depth.
The optimization of the CDF enables the identification of the four most representative phases, described below:
  • A phase representing the lithium particles (the higher values of hardness and the lower values of elastic modulus)
  • A phase representing the matrix (the lower values of hardness and the higher values of elastic modulus)
These first two peaks are characterized by a relatively small standard deviation, a direct suggestion that they really represent the properties of the two main constituents.
  • Two phases representing the matrix influence for the smaller particles, the edge effect, the defects in the particles (the intermediate values), and roughness effects
These last two peaks are characterized by a relatively higher standard deviation, a direct suggestion that they represent the properties of various artifacts.
It is interesting to note how the elastic modulus value achieved with DCM Express Test is higher than the values obtained with XP CSM, due to the higher strain rate applied during indentation and the viscoelastic properties of the polymer matrix.

Summary

Ultrafast DCM Express Test nanoindentation testing performed with a Keysight Nano Indenter G200 is extremely useful for the identification of single-phase mechanical properties and their spatial distribution in lithium/polymer battery composites. Careful mapping of elastic modulus and hardness, together with robust statistical analysis, allows a reliable analysis of the micro structural/mechanical features of such materials.
The effects of applied strain rate and the selection of the optimal penetration depth for lithium/polymer heterogeneous materials is possible by the comparison between XP CSM and DCM Express nanoindentation mapping results.

References

[1] P. Kurzwell, K. Brandt, Secondary batteries – Lithium rechargeable systems (2007).
[2] J. Zhu and K. Zeng, Electrochimica Acta, 15:52–59, 2012.
[3] J. Vetter, P. Novak, M.R Wagner, C. Veit, K.-C. Muller, J.O. Besenhard, M. Winter, M. Wohlfahrt-Mehrens, C. Vogler, and A. Hammouche – Ageing mechanisms in lithium-ion batteries. J Power Sources, 147:269–281, 2005.
[4] G. Constantinides, F.J. Ulm, J. Mech. Phys. Solids 55 (2007) 64–90.
[5] M. Vandamme, F.J. Ulm, P. Fonollosa, Cement Concr. Res. 40 (2010) 14–26.
[6] M. Vandamme, F.J. Ulm, Cement Concr. Res. 52 (2013) 38–52.

Authors

M. Sebastiani, F. Massimi, R. Moscatelli, Edoardo Bemporad (University of Rome “Roma TRE”, Engineering Department, Italy)
D. Rosato (Robert Bosch GmbH)
H.-Y. Amanieu (Robert Bosch GmbH, Duisburg Essen University)

Nanomeasurement Systems from Keysight Technologies

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