Wednesday, 26 October 2016

Several Reasons of Lithium Battery System Fires

Security is the lifeblood of child battery, the lifepo4 48v system from the inside out cause of the fire in recent thinking and analysis, this is considered a major reason for the layers to push forward, then consider the previous and future accidents put to match then the future of an accident PPM (parts per million) based on the actual design of each model speculation. Hereinafter all manufacturers names are removed, does not explore this topic for any enterprise, not judge.

It is assumed from a single problem, and then extended to the global dimension of the experiment, it can be seen:

Analysis of the whole system just to match the battery fire this extreme event occurs, we segment the contents from mechanical abuse, battery system design basis is to focus on in a relatively safe position of the vehicle, to prevent problems in the course of the vehicle the whole mechanical design of course is a lot to do experiments security content acupuncture, extrusion, etc., but in fact the problem caused by the mechanical abuse but easily become a problem.

In Tesla's two accidents as an example:

Lithium ion Battery Explosion

1. On fire in Smyrna, Tennessee, this car electric cars rushed to drop the road trailer hitch, the fire broke out after the collision chassis.

2. When the driver hit the turn, and through the wall of a cement eventually hit a tree and stopped the fire.

3. In Seattle, the owner called and hit a metal fragments, so he left the highway. After the failure of the car, he smelled the smell of burning, fire burning vehicle at this time.

This mechanical design also appears on a simple structure in the periphery of the bottom cover and consider additional protection, you can get immediate results.

We make things happen this year, the manufacturers removed, you can then think about a car on fire outside the cell or battery? A large part of the load cell is outside the peripheral portion of the cable overheating lit things some more.

Here we can be divided into three basic, because the nature of fire:

Released in accordance with the design intent and outside the combustion heat within the battery, 

1. The combustible gas inside the battery release ignition

2. Flammable liquid inside the battery release + Flash point: here including electrolyte leakage and coolant leaks in two parts.

We can release heat energy battery systems to consider:

1. Battery Pack or Battery Cell Overcharge

Overcharge release of thermal energy in general is indeed more common reason, the storage battery pack of solar powered portable generator level thermal runaway event, can be broken down into more down the battery (modules monomer overcharge), evaporated electrolyte battery overcharge and overheating, as well as It is the battery remaining capacity (SOC) calculation error caused by over-charging, high SOC state, not in accordance with energy recovery protection cause, and the charging control program stuck due to overcharging.

2. A Person Short Circuit Overcurrent Heat Release

Lithium Battery Explosion

Battery pack high voltage circuit failure cause a short circuit, distributing heat. The main battery pack is an internal short circuit and external short circuit, causing the conductors and connectors overheating, caused by overheating of the monomer subsequent thermal event, is further broken down to be broken down into short-circuit caused by overheating of the module components. Eg short circuit module level, a short circuit within the battery pack, the external corrosion / conductive liquid into a short circuit caused.

3. High-impedance Connection of Heat

Fault battery pack high-voltage circuits, resulting in high resistance appearing at the position charging and discharging circuit, the current rise in the temperature of the high resistance point that could cause a fire and subsequent heat adjacent material spread. Trunk junction poor contact, corrosion caused by heat.

4. The Internal Resistance of The Battery Overheating and Internal Promotion

Monomers to produce a combustible gas exhaust, followed by a heat source (arc monomer thermal runaway) lead to the battery system, surplus heat. Monomeric single point of failure as defined thermal runaway experiment can be considered a single monomer extended to the whole aspect, in the given conditions, each battery pack for portable solar power generator will achieve record correspondent, some reference to the role, but the experimental conditions and the occurrence of failure is not It may be completely consistent.

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Storage Batteries Made Significant Breakthrough

High-performance chemical storage batteries and portable solar power generator power plant key technology research, supported by high energy density, low-cost new supercapacitor key technologies , long-life lithium manganese battery energy storage system and key technology demonstration and other topics are significant progress was made, it has recently passed the technical acceptance.

Portable Solar Generators
New Super Capacitor

In the "new super capacitor", the preparation of technical bottleneck breakthrough high energy density and long life high power density supercapacitors portable solar power generator developed porous graphene, high voltage electrolyte salt and electrolyte, separator and other cellulosic materials, the development of dry preparing an electrode film test technology, breaking the (3.0V/12000F) supercapacitor industrialization of core technologies, products can be recovered in the machinery, rail vehicles supercapacitor respect at home and abroad to obtain applications. From domestic materials, devices integrated into the system formed in the super capacitor core technology system, changing the super capacitor during the Eleventh Five by the monopoly of foreign products.

Long-life Lithium Manganese Battery Energy Storage System

In the "long-life lithium manganese battery energy storage system", the industrialization of key technologies mastered the low-cost long-life lithium-ion energy storage system, launched a layered lithium manganese oxide, lithium manganese oxide single crystal surface coating, aluminum, cobalt Study co-doped material, a hard carbon anode material asphalt and resins derived function of the electrolyte studies, as well as single cells, modules and energy storage system of lithium manganese oxide cathode, single life expectancy has more than 3,000 times, some 6,000 times. Completed the development of two sets of 50kW / 100kWh level layered lithium manganese oxide / hard carbon lithium-ion battery energy storage system and the demonstration run, portable solar power generator is the first in the world; while the development of energy storage 20kWh solar home systems, 3kWh standby emergency power demonstration applications.

All-solid-state Lithium-ion Storage Battery

In the "all-solid lithium-ion storage battery", the successful development of high conductivity Li2S-P2S5 binary system and Li2S-GeS2-P2S5 ternary solid electrolyte mastered the system preparation Li2S-P2S5 glass-ceramic solid electrolyte material preparation method, the amorphous precursor made great breakthrough to achieve a stable production of high efficiency.

It has now achieved kg capacity sulfide solid electrolyte prepared. Development of the high nickel component layered cathode material having a core-shell structure and composition gradient. With the above binary sulfide solid electrolyte and cathode, developed capacity of 4.0Ah and 8.0Ah solid-state lithium batteries, the number of cycles at room temperature reached 500 times , and optimized assembly process proposed large-scale all-solid-state lifepo4 battery in soft packages solar power portable generator, promoted the industrialization process of all-solid lithium-ion battery.
self balancing scooter battery
New LifePo4 Batteries Chemical Energy Storage

In the "new type of lithium sulfur battery chemical energy storage", the development of high-energy density lifePo4 batteries technology preparation, development of 35Ah lithium-sulfur battery specific energy 566Wh / kg (25 ℃ test), reached the world advanced level. 1kWh initial development of lithium-sulfur batteries and large-capacity 12kWh llifePo4 batteries, solar power portable generator achieved its coupling power demonstration. Using elemental sulfur, high-capacity lithium-sulfur batteries and battery technology products have the potential when used as a long-endurance UAV airborne energy systems and other areas of application prospects.

Low-cost Lithium Titanate Energy Storage Lithium-ion Battery

In the "low-cost lithium titanate energy storage lithium-ion battery", the amount of material to get through the low-cost production, long life and high consistency and battery modules, portable solar power generator plant demonstration and promotion of the whole industry chain, to build a solar power portable generator system based on lithium titanate anode material demonstration of mobile storage devices, optical storage demonstration was 0.5MWh / 1MW lithium titanate energy storage power station, laid the foundation for lithium titanate energy storage applications.

To some extent, to meet the renewable energy and smart grid scale energy storage needs, and promote the orderly development of wind, solar powered portable generator and rational allocation of resources, improve the intermittent new energy grid technology, energy storage batteries for China material - batteries - integration - demonstration chain provides a more complete technical support system, building industry internationally competitive platform for future sustainable development of the industry and promote the development of China's storage industry, to enhance China's energy can strategic position of sustainable development, broad market prospects.

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LifePo4 Storage Battery For Portable Solar Power Generator

Lithium-iron battery solar powered portable generator system can be used as a variety of electric power and stability of the buffer between the needs of the power can be increased as wind, solar and other unstable power generating capacity. Wind power generation system due to changes in wind speed and cause the output power of the oscillation, and portable solar power generator system can be fast response speed, almost equal to the charge-discharge cycle characteristics provide stability and reactive power compensation for the fan output. At the same time, the energy storage system can adjust the voltage and off-grid power system frequency control system.

Control System

Lithium-Iron battery solar power portable generator system consists of a programmable logic controller (PLC) and human machine interface (HMI) control. One of the key functions of the PLC system is to control the energy storage system charging time and rate. For example: PLC electricity prices may receive real time data, and based on the maximum allowable electricity demand, as well as the state of charge Compare prices peak / off-peak time, decide how quickly to re-charge the lifePo4 batteries system. This decision is dynamic and can be optimized according to specific circumstances. Through standardized communication input control signal and power supply, which is integrated with the rest of the portable solar power generator system. It can be accessed through a dial-up or Internet. It has multiple layers of defense to limit access to its various functions, and provides customized reporting and alarm functions for remote monitoring.

Power Conversion System (PCS)

Function power conversion system is the lifePo4 batteries charge and discharge, and to provide an improved quality of power supply voltage and frequency control support for the local grid. It can have a complex, fast acting, multi-quadrant, the dynamic controller (DSP), with a dedicated control algorithms to the entire range of switching the output device, i.e., the cycle from absorbing full power. Reactive power demand as well as any combination of active and reactive power, it can work properly.

Lithium iron Stack

The stack is made of many cells. Iron lithium battery portable solar power generator system to economically store and provide large-scale power on demand, is the main mode of fixation. It is a long-life, low maintenance, efficient technology to support extensions stepless power and storage capacity. Energy storage system for renewable energy providers, power companies and end-users are particularly effective.

Deferred grid fixed investment, as well as load shifting applications. Solar power portable generator system can also serve as a communication station and substation to provide backup power to be applied.  lifepo4 48v energy storage system for environment-friendly, in all energy storage technologies for minimal ecological impact, but not to lead or cadmium and other elements of the main reactants.

Renewable Energy
E-bike Batteries Pack
Lithium-Iron battery energy storage system can be used as a variety of electric power and stability of the buffer between the needs of the power can be increased as wind, solar and other unstable power generating capacity. Wind power generation system due to changes in wind speed and cause the output power of the oscillation, and portable solar power generator system can be fast response speed, almost equal to the charge-discharge cycle characteristics provide stability and reactive power compensation for the fan output. At the same time, the energy storage system can adjust the voltage and off-grid power system frequency control system.

Power Supply in Remote Areas

In the sparsely populated remote areas, such as islands, diesel generators often as a single source of energy. Diesel generators are often due to changes in load and in a non-rated power, which makes fuel-efficient reduced by about 30%.

Off-grid solar power supply system configuration storage system can effectively reduce diesel consumption, operation and maintenance costs, greenhouse gas emissions and extend the life of diesel engines.

Wind power and photovoltaic power generation accounted for the total proportion of diesel power increasing, while the proportion reached 30% of the time, it brings instability will directly reduce the reliability of the local power grid, should be more limited increase in renewable energy electricity. However, by configuring the portable solar power generator system, the ratio may be 100%, and the project payback period be shortened to three years. With rising fuel prices, the economy will be more significant.

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Tuesday, 25 October 2016

Research And Development New Battery Technology

In addition, energy storage research also has multiple problems, such as foam cells, flow batteries to a variety of chemical materials, no one knows which technology will attract the most funds and research heat.

Lux Research reports that the energy storage investment of more than 40 billion US dollars, such as solar power generator and wind power, the development of next-generation batteries, non-lithium-ion battery startups in the past eight years, an average of only 4 million funds, Tesla investment in lithium-ion battery factory Gigafactory invested 5 billion US dollars .

R & D new battery material threshold is very high, just to build a small production line to study the details into production, it is necessary to 500 million US dollars, car manufacturers may also take several years to test the new battery system before deciding whether to purchase, if Your company has only $ 5 million in capital a year, making it hard to invest $ 500 million in manufacturing.

Leyden Energy, A123 Systems, Seeo, Sakti3 are not looking for the end because of the factors such as production, price and other factors that investors will not be able to achieve, even if the new battery manufacturers commercialize new technology, and will face the problem of increasing production and looking for buyers.

The world's three major battery manufacturers, Samsung, LG, Panasonic on the new chemistry and significantly change the battery technology are not too interested in, they would rather gradual improvement in the existing technology. The battery technology can improve device application, lighten the device weight, such as when people take solar powered portable generator to travel.

Although the first lithium-ion battery as early as the 1970s to come out, but now technology has been getting better and better, which is innovative battery technology, the most reluctant to mention, and they face the biggest problem.

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Friday, 14 October 2016

Top 4 Tips to Maintain UPS LifePo4 Batteries

Many people think that the lifePo4 batteries is maintenance-free, especially when using a UPS power supply, this idea is even more apparent. But in fact, the problem is due to the lack of maintenance caused by battery failure in all UPS's share is quite high.

Many people think that the lifePo4 batteries is maintenance-free, especially when using a UPS power supply, this idea is even more apparent. But in fact, the problem is due to the lack of maintenance caused by battery failure in all UPS's share is quite high. Therefore, routine maintenance of UPS lifePo4 batteries, UPS will largely extend the battery life and reduce the failure rate. This article will introduce you to UPS lifePo4 batteries maintenance methods.

Maintaining Proper Temperature

Generally, factors affecting lifePo4 batteries life is greater ambient temperature. The optimal ambient temperature is generally required for battery manufacturers is between 20-25 ℃. Although the temperature rise of the battery discharge capacity has increased, but at the expense of lifePo4 batteries life is shortened. According to tests measuring the ambient temperature once more than 25 ℃, every increase of 10 ℃, the battery life will be shortened by half. UPS lifePo4 batteries currently used are generally maintenance-free sealed lead-acid battery design life expectancy is five years, which can be achieved at battery manufacturer demanding environments. The lifepo4 battery also can be used in solar power portable generator. Not reach the environmental requirements, there is a great difference in the length of its life. In addition, to improve the ambient temperature, it will cause the battery internal chemical activity increased, resulting in a lot of heat, in turn prompting the ambient temperature rises, this vicious cycle will accelerate shorten lifePo4 batteries life.

Regularly Charge and Discharge

UPS power supply in the float voltage and discharge voltage at the factory have been commissioning rating, while the discharge current size increases as the load increases, the use should be reasonable to adjust the load, such as the control computer and other electronic equipment It uses several. Under normal circumstances, the load should not exceed 60% UPS rated load. In this range, the lifePo4 batteries discharge current will not over-discharge.

UPS due to the long connected to the mains, the supply of high quality, rare power cut use of the environment, the battery will be a long period of float charge state, the course of time will lead to battery chemical energy and electrical energy into each activity decreased, accelerated aging and shorten life. Thus, generally every 2-3 months should be fully discharged once the discharge time can be determined based on the lifepo4 battery pack capacity and load size. After a full load discharge is complete, the required recharge more than 8 hours. 

Use of Communications Capabilities

Currently, the vast majority of large and medium-sized UPS are equipped with computer communication and control procedures operability. Install the appropriate software on the PC connected to UPS through the serial / parallel port, run the program, you can use the computer to communicate with the UPS. Generally have information query, parameter settings, set the timer, automatic shutdown and alarm functions. Through information query, you can get the mains input voltage, UPS output voltage, load utilization,lifePo4 batteries capacity utilization, internal temperature and mains frequency information; through parameter settings, you can set the basic characteristics of UPS, battery time and can be maintained battery runs out alarms. Through these intelligence operations, which greatly facilitates the use of lifePo4 batteries and UPS power management.

The Timely Replacement of the Waste or Bad Battery

Currently the number of medium and large UPS lifePo4 batteries power supply is equipped from 3-80 dollars, or even more. These individual cells through a circuit connected to form a battery pack to meet the needs UPS DC power supply. UPS running in continuous use, due to the difference in performance and quality on individual lifePo4 batteries performance, storage capacity is mainly the damage is inevitable. When the battery pack in a / some cells are damaged, the maintenance personnel should be checked for each battery test, to exclude damage to the battery. When replacing a new battery, it should seek to buy with the same type of battery manufacturers prohibit anti-acid batteries and sealed batteries, mix batteries of different specifications.

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5 Tips for Choosing Best UPS LifePo4 Battery

Determine the required UPS capacity: Calculate the sum of all load S = S1 + S2 + ...... + Sn Unit: VA. Select UPS capacity ≥S ÷ 0.8 (consider the impact resistance and the need for expansion of the UPS).

UPS to determine the required type: according to the load on the output stability, switching time, the output waveform is determined by selecting on-line, line-interactive, backup lifePo4 battery pack. Output line UPS stability, transient response capability than the other two strong ability to adapt to non-linear loads is also strong. Some of the more sophisticated equipment and more important requirements for the use of equipment-line UPS. If you are using a generator with a short delay UPS, recommended on-line UPS, because the generator voltage and frequency ordinary poor stability, with back-line interactive and it may not work properly. Some brands of UPS (on-line) don't match with the generator, it will switch to bypass power, to understand clearly the time of purchase. 

Determine the required lifePo4 batteries backup time: According to the power-down, the equipment required working hours. Time-lapse type battery costs may exceed UPS host itself. Due to the high value of the lifePo4 batteries, there are more counterfeit goods, to select high degree of credibility of suppliers, which UPS system reliability is critical.

Additional features: To improve the reliability of the system by lifePo4 batteries, we recommend using a redundant UPS system, can be considered in series or in parallel heat hot backup redundant. Small capacity UPS (1 ~ 2KVA) can also use redundant switches. You can use remote monitoring panel, realized at the distal end monitoring and control of the UPS work. You can use monitoring software, intelligent management computer and the UPS between. You can choose a network adapter to achieve the UPS network management (based on SNMP). In some rainy thunder area, it can be used with SPD. 

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Solar Power Battery Storage System The Principle of Charging and Discharging

Solar Power Battery Storage System

Solar power battery has a high operating voltage, high energy density, a series of unique advantages of long cycle life, environmental protection and so on. And supports stepless extension. After the composition of the energy storage system for large-scale energy storage.

Solar storage batteries energy storage system consists of Solar power battery group, a battery management system (Battery Management System, BMS), commutation devices (rectifiers, inverters), central monitoring system, transformers and other components, as shown in FIG.

Solar power battery energy storage system of energy conversion principles. Charging stage, intermittent power supply or power grid as the energy storage system is charged, the AC to DC rectifier rectifier after charging the battery energy storage module to store energy; discharge phase, the energy storage system to the grid or the load is discharged, the battery energy storage module through the inverter DC to AC inverter, via the central monitoring system controls the inverter output, enabling the load to the grid or to provide a stable power output.

Battery charge and discharge principle

Charge-discharge reaction of Solar power battery is between solar power battery and FePO4 two phases. During charging, Solar power battery ions moving away from FePO4, during discharge, lithium ions FePO4 formed Solar power battery.

When charging the battery, lithium ions migrate from the solar power batteries crystals to the crystal surface, under the action of the electric force, into the electrolyte, and then through the membrane, and then the electrolyte migrate to the surface of the graphite crystal, then the character is embedded in graphite. At the same time, the flow of electrons through a conductor of positive electrode collector foil by tabs, battery positive column, the external circuit, the negative pole, the negative electrode lug flow battery cathode copper foil collector, and then flows through a conductor graphite anode so that the negative electrode Heda to balance. After the lithium ions from the Solar power battery deintercalation of Solar power battery is converted to iron phosphate.

When the battery is discharged, the lithium ion deintercalation from graphite crystals out into the electrolyte, and then through the membrane, through the electrolyte to migrate to the surface of Solar power battery crystals and then re-embedded into the crystal lattice of Solar power battery. At the same time, the flow of electrons through a conductor foil negative electrode collector by tabs, battery negative column, the external circuit, the positive pole, the cathode tabs flow battery cathode foil collector, and then flows through the conductive body iron phosphate lithium anode, the positive electric Heda to balance. Lithium-ion iron phosphate crystals embedded in the rear, into iron phosphate Solar power battery.

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Thursday, 13 October 2016

Home Batteries Can Save More Money

Houses with solar that don’t also have energy storage like solar power batteries have no way to use the excess electricity generated during the day when the sun is shining and solar energy is in abundance. When households have solar energy they can’t use, it goes back into the power grid. Often, power companies pay households for giving back the extra power generated by solar, but not as much as they charge for the same amount of electricity later in the day, when people actually need it. Without a home battery, solar customers end up paying extra for the electricity they generated themselves, which is like paying the power company to store the energy for them so they can use it later. Instead of giving more money to the power companies, why not just store it yourself? With a home battery, solar households have this opportunity.

This eases the workload of power plants, decreases carbon emissions, and saves money for households with solar power storage at the same time. Taking this into consideration, it’s hard to argue against Musk when he says that all solar panel owners need a home battery. Without a home battery to store excess electricity, solar owners continue to throw money and energy at the power companies. Home batteries keep electricity and money in the hands of the consumer.

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No longer blew! Prevent Lithium Battery Explosion Method!

( 48V) Lithium batteries are flammable devices, mobile phones, scooters and other built-in lithium device, if used improperly, there is always the time of explosion. We have reproduced in movie, show scooter lithium blast.

Do lithium produced in the manufacturing process itself is also a problem can not be ignored, because the manufacturing process was defective, it is easy to leave fragments of metal dust, copper and aluminum foil between the positive and negative should be insulated from these scrap battery overheated, will be like the dumplings in boiling water to do the same random thermal motion in the electrolyte, if prolonged exercise, these particles happen to be close to the lifepo4 battery positive and negative poles in the middle of the diaphragm can easily cause a short circuit inside, and inside the battery the electrolyte is a flammable liquid, a spark caused by a short circuit in a confined environment can easily lead to electrolyte battery ignition internal combustion and explosion. Is there a lithium battery to prevent prevent blew? American universities have studied the new technology successfully. 

Stanford University scientists have developed a new lithium battery, and claim to have mechanism to prevent the explosion. Traditional lithium-ion batteries will be between the electrodes with liquid or gel electrolyte containing ions, these electrolytes because of a short circuit, overcharge and other factors continue to generate heat, once the temperature is too high, for example, more than 150 degrees, the electrolyte will fire and explosion, and this prevents blew lithium battery prevents this from happening, the principle is automatically powered off before the battery overheating, so that the battery is no longer a chemical action ordered temperature decreases, when the temperature is reduced to a certain level when the battery quickly restart. This batteries can be used in solar powered portable generator.

However, they are not flame retardants and the like so that the battery can not use the material, but turned to nanotechnology, nanoscale nickel particle surface plus a layer of graphene, and embedded in a flexible polyethylene film, and the film will connect the two poles . The film will be stretched when heated, separated from the conductive nickel particles, will cause power outages effect, then the film cools, it will reconnect the power supply of the nickel particles.

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Six Ways for Solar Energy Storage Battery Freeze in Winter

In winter, the solar power batteries should take the following conservation measures:

Greenhouse overhead storage batteries when not in the house to save more than 0 ℃, should not be placed directly on the ground. Before storing the first external battery clean, add enough liquid electrolyte, adequate electricity, tighten the plug. After a supplementary charge every month, once every two weeks to check the electrolyte level, and refresh immediately insufficient. Thus, the battery can ensure safe winter.

Progress liquid volume ratio of water and sulfuric acid electrolyte composition, the higher the content of sulfuric acid in the electrolyte, the electrolyte specific gravity higher, the lower the freezing temperature of the electrolyte. To this end, the country may be to select the appropriate proportion of the electrolyte according to the local winter minimum temperature, to prevent the electrolyte from freezing.

Enough electricity to keep the state during the winter, when the battery discharge 50%, the risk of electrolyte freezing there. For this reason, the battery discharge level winter does not allow more than 50%. In winter, we should always check the LEP battery save electricity, the shortage should be promptly added.

Progress temperature electrolysis temperature of the electrolyte significant impact on the capacity of the battery, the ambient temperature decrease 1 ℃, the capacity reduction of about 1% - 2%. To this end, the temperature of the electrolyte to progress, should be the locomotive parked indoors, or move into the battery room above 0 ℃.

Water was added to distilled water mixing battery should be uniformly mixed with the electrolyte. If no time mixing well, floating on top of the electrolyte distilled water freezes. To do this winter to add distilled water to the battery, immediately to its charge, while charging or distilled water, electrolyte can quickly mix and distilled water will not freeze up. The battery usually be used in solar powered portable generator.

Check regularly start the start the system should be checked regularly maintained. Adjustable voltage regulator, the charging voltage is increased to 0.60V. Every time you start not exceed 3 - 5 seconds, the time you start none, should stop 1 minute before start. Long consecutive starts, it will damage the starter motor and battery. 

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Battery Lose Effectiveness Modes

Battery Lose Effectiveness Modes

Since the plate type, production conditions, there are differences in usage, and ultimately lead to the battery '> reasons for battery failure is also different, back satisfied them, there are several Lose Effectiveness modes: 

1.Corrosion deformation of the positive electrode plate board gate

Alloy currently used on the production of three types of traditional lead-antimony alloy, antimony or ultra-low antimony alloy, lead-calcium. The three cast alloy grid, the battery charging process will be oxidized to lead sulfate and lead dioxide, leading to the loss of the role of supporting the active material of the battery failure; after corrosion due to the formation of lead dioxide layer, of lead alloy to produce stress, the linear grid grow up deformed, and finally the destruction of the whole plate, the active material and grid off poor contact or short circuit at the bus. And these batteries can be used in solar powered portable generator.

2.The positive electrode active material shedding, softening

In addition to grid grow active material loss caused by the outside, with repeated charging and discharging, a combination of lead dioxide between the particles are slack, soften, falling off from the plates. Plate manufacturing, assembly and elastic charge-discharge range of factors, all of the positive electrode active material softening, shedding affected. 

3.Irreversible sulfation

Battery discharge, discharge after long-term storage or storage in a discharged state, the plate will dissolve lead sulfate, recrystallization born under one kind of thick, hard to accept the charging of lead sulfate crystals, this phenomenon becomes irreversible sulfation . Severe electrode degradation, can not be charged, such as solar power battery discharge.

4.Premature loss of capacity

When used as a low-antimony or lead-calcium alloy grid, the battery used in the early stages (about 20 cycles), the emergence of the phenomenon of sudden drop in the capacity of the battery failure. 

5.Antimony serious accumulation on the active substance

Antimony positive electrode plate with the charging and discharging cycle, is oxidized to ionic moiety, with the electrolyte to reach the anode active material reduction due to hydrogen ion electrolyte antimony easier than hydrogen reduction born on lead, antimony therefore after accumulation, when most of the current battery charge are used for water decomposition, the battery is not charging properly and failure.

6.Thermal runaway

Since the charging voltage is too high, the current is too large, causing the battery temperature, battery ultimate deformation, cracking and failure, the same as lifepo4 battery pack.
7.Negative strap corrosion

Under normal circumstances, there is no bus low corrosion problems, but in the valve-sealed batteries, when creating oxygen cycle, the battery upper space filled with basic oxygen, electrolyte separator may also climb along the tabs on the bus, bus alloy will be oxidized naturally lead sulfate, if the bus electrode alloy inappropriate choice of impurities and crevice corrosion along these cracks will deepen, causing the lug and bus disengaged negative plate failure.

8.Membrane perforation caused by a short circuit

Individual species diaphragm aperture greater use may cause a big hole, the active materials can pass through the large hole in the charge and discharge process, resulting in micro-short circuit, the battery failure.

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Wednesday, 12 October 2016

Why Lithium Polymer Battery So Popular

The lithium-ion battery electrolyte material different from the lithium-ion battery is divided into liquid lithium-ion battery (Liquified Lithium-Ion Battery, referred to as LIB) and lithium-ion polymer battery (Polymer Lithium-Ion Battery, referred to as the PLB) with lithium or plastic ion battery (Plastic Lithium ion batteries, referred to as the PLB). Anode and cathode materials used in lithium-ion polymer battery with liquid lithium-ion is the same, divided into cathode material of lithium cobalt oxide, lithium manganese oxide, LifePo4 batteries ternary materials and materials, graphite is extremely negative, the battery works basically consistent. The main difference lies in the different electrolytes, liquid lithium-ion battery using a liquid electrolyte, lithium-ion polymer battery Zeyi solid polymer electrolyte to replace, such polymers can be "dry state", it can be "colloidal" currently most using a polymer gel electrolyte.


Solid: The solid polymer electrolyte lithium ion batteries and polymer electrolyte is a mixture of salts, such cells at high room temperature ionic conductivity, can be used at room temperature and used in portable solar power generator.

Gel: gel polymer electrolyte lithium ion batteries i.e., plasticizers and other additives added to the solid polymer electrolyte, thereby improving ionic conductivity, so that the battery can be used at room temperature.

Polymer: As the solid electrolyte instead of a liquid electrolyte, as compared with liquid lithium-ion batteries, polymer lithium ion battery having a thin shape, and of any area of any shape, etc., so you can use plastic composite film manufacturing batteries housing, which can improve the ratio of the entire battery capacity; polymer lithium-ion polymer battery can be also used as a cathode material, its quality will be improved by more than 20 percent more energy than the current liquid lithium-ion battery. Lithium-ion polymer (Polymer Lithium-Ion Battery) battery has a small, thin, lightweight characteristics. Thus, the polymer battery market share will gradually increase.

Polymer lithium ion battery has the following characteristics:
Shaping flexibility;
Higher quality than the energy (3 times the MH-Ni batteries);
The electrochemical stability window wide, up to 5V;
Perfect safety and reliability;
Longer cycle life, less capacity loss;
Volume utilization is high;

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