Showing posts with label lithium battery. Show all posts
Showing posts with label lithium battery. Show all posts

Thursday, 13 October 2016

No longer blew! Prevent Lithium Battery Explosion Method!

( 48V) Lithium batteries are flammable devices, mobile phones, scooters and other built-in lithium device, if used improperly, there is always the time of explosion. We have reproduced in movie, show scooter lithium blast.

Do lithium produced in the manufacturing process itself is also a problem can not be ignored, because the manufacturing process was defective, it is easy to leave fragments of metal dust, copper and aluminum foil between the positive and negative should be insulated from these scrap battery overheated, will be like the dumplings in boiling water to do the same random thermal motion in the electrolyte, if prolonged exercise, these particles happen to be close to the lifepo4 battery positive and negative poles in the middle of the diaphragm can easily cause a short circuit inside, and inside the battery the electrolyte is a flammable liquid, a spark caused by a short circuit in a confined environment can easily lead to electrolyte battery ignition internal combustion and explosion. Is there a lithium battery to prevent prevent blew? American universities have studied the new technology successfully. 

Stanford University scientists have developed a new lithium battery, and claim to have mechanism to prevent the explosion. Traditional lithium-ion batteries will be between the electrodes with liquid or gel electrolyte containing ions, these electrolytes because of a short circuit, overcharge and other factors continue to generate heat, once the temperature is too high, for example, more than 150 degrees, the electrolyte will fire and explosion, and this prevents blew lithium battery prevents this from happening, the principle is automatically powered off before the battery overheating, so that the battery is no longer a chemical action ordered temperature decreases, when the temperature is reduced to a certain level when the battery quickly restart. This batteries can be used in solar powered portable generator.


However, they are not flame retardants and the like so that the battery can not use the material, but turned to nanotechnology, nanoscale nickel particle surface plus a layer of graphene, and embedded in a flexible polyethylene film, and the film will connect the two poles . The film will be stretched when heated, separated from the conductive nickel particles, will cause power outages effect, then the film cools, it will reconnect the power supply of the nickel particles.

This article comes from http://www.storagebattery-factory.com/news/prevent-lithium-battery-explosion-method.html.

Wednesday, 22 April 2015

Do you know the real reason for the lithium battery performance degradation it?

Li-ion battery has now been widely used in mobile devices, but the battery life is not long, 500 charging cycles will lose about 1/5 of capacity. In order to study the reasons for the lithium battery degradation, the US Pacific Northwest National Laboratory scientist using a powerful microscope to observe the success of the real-time status of the lithium battery charge and discharge.

The researchers found that when using the battery creates pressure and cause rupture electrode. In addition, for each charge and discharge cycle will leave traces of lithium electrode in addition to these "death" of lithium which can no longer play a role in the future of charging, and will cause a decline in battery capacity. The researchers also observed in the solid electrolyte interphase layer is formed on the electrode surface, which can "clog" the battery and affect its ability to charge.
Lithium who want to solve these problems, the use of alternative methods is one of the elements. In the future, magnesium, aluminum, or copper and other metals could become cheaper and stable alternative, however, the performance of these batteries is still not up to the level of lithium batteries.

Monday, 13 April 2015

Battery Tests Show Some Lithium-Ion Cells Last Over 5x Longer

Researcher Andreas Gutsch from the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology said at the PV Symposium in Germany recently that some lithium-ion cells working in storage systems experienced up to 30% capacity loss after 1,000 cycles, while some cells have a better capacity after 5,000 cycles. In other words, there can be quite a lot of variation in lithium-ion cell performance.

lithiumionbatteryger

Testing conditions did not allow him to reveal the names of cell manufacturers. The cells were not easy to obtain for testing and he could not disclose that specific information. However, his test results did reveal that cells from China that were tested had the performance that decreased most rapidly. Cells from Japan and Germany did the best, while ones from South Korea and the US were in the middle of the performance range.

One battery type that was specifically mentioned was the Tesla battery. This battery was found to last 400 cycles and was indicated to have the ability to power a car for about 200,000 kilometers (124,000 miles): 400 cycles multiplied by 500 km per full charge. That said, Elon Musk has stated that Tesla has a Model S in the lab with 500,000 miles (805,000 kilometers) on it, and without excess degradation. So, it seems the tests have been conducted very differently or something funky is going on.

Gutsch previously noted that some energy storage battery types might have safety issues, such as thermal runaway. According to his research, safety standards for some batteries have not been met.

He does believe batteries will eventually be a great way to store electricity, though.

All, or most of us lay people are on a learning curve when it comes considering how to evaluate the best batteries for consumer technology performance. To engineers, it may not be surprising at all that there could be such a range in cell performance. It may be fairly dismaying to lay persons to find this out, though we may notice that some of our consumer devices (like smartphones and other rechargeables) have poor to very poor battery lives, with variation being rather large.

Battery storage for a home or business is quite another matter.


Source:http://cleantechnica.com/2015/03/27/battery-storage-test-shows-lithium-ion-cells-last-5x-longer/

Thursday, 9 April 2015

About the past era of lithium aluminum battery age will come up?

Chinese American scientists have developed a high-performance aluminum battery's first commercial application, its charge faster, last longer and very cheap, just one minute using this smart phone battery is fully charged. The new battery can replace the widely used but there is still insufficient lithium ion batteries and alkaline batteries. Research published in the April 6 issue of "Nature" magazine online edition.

Because aluminum battery has a low cost, easy to burn and do not have a high charge storage capacity, etc., for decades researchers have attempted to develop an economically viable to aluminum ion batteries, but has not been successful, where the key challenge is to find the right positive materials and electrolyte materials, so that the aluminum battery is constantly charging and discharging cycles can still produce an effective voltage.

The study's lead author, professor of chemistry at Stanford University Dai said: "People try a variety of cathode materials, but the effect is unsatisfactory we accidentally discovered a new graphite material, which has excellent performance, can be used as a positive electrode of the battery. "

According to the US Science Daily website reported April 6, and the cathode is comprised of graphite researchers in experiments by aluminum anode, coupled with the ionic liquid electrolyte, placed in a flexible polymer foil-wrapped software package in the manufacture of this battery. The research collaborators Gong Ming (phonetic) said: "The electrolyte is basically a liquid salt at room temperature state, therefore, the entire system is very safe."

Dai Hongjie said: "The newly developed aluminum rechargeable batteries safer than conventional lithium-ion batteries, lithium ion batteries may explode, in order to take preventive measures, United Airlines and Delta Air Lines recently forbid civil aircraft checked chunks Lithium batteries, aluminum battery will not explode. On the other hand, is currently equipped with a lithium-ion battery charging smartphones may take several hours, but the use of this aluminum battery for a fully charged cell phone just a minute. "

Aluminum ion battery developed at the University of domestic mobile phone charger available one hour four days

In addition, the new battery life is very long. Other laboratory developed aluminum battery can charge and discharge 100 times, usually lithium-ion battery charge and discharge up to only 1000, and the new aluminum battery without any loss in capacity after 7500 charge-discharge cycles later. The researchers said, "This is the first time the development of this fast, and after thousands of charge-discharge cycles 'torture' still safe and sound after the aluminum ion batteries."

Dai Hongjie said that another feature of the new battery is its soft figure, you can also make it bent its folded, therefore, has the potential for flexible electronic devices. In addition, the battery can replace alkaline batteries will pollute the environment, but also cheaper than aluminum lithium battery. "In addition to small electronic devices, such aluminum battery can be used for renewable energy storage within the grid Dai Hongjie explained:." Grid requires a long life and can quickly charge and discharge the battery, our aluminum battery is the perfect choice . "

However, the voltage of the battery to produce new aluminum lithium battery is only half of the traditional, Dai Hongjie hope can improve the performance of the cathode material, and ultimately improve the aluminum battery voltage and increase the energy density. .

Tuesday, 31 March 2015

Power lithium battery high demand in 2014 will meet the explosive growth of the future

ufo battery offical site
2014, the number of new cars in the global energy yield sales USA, China, Japan, the European Union and other countries and regions, led by more than 300,000, only China's new energy vehicle production in 2014 reached 83,900. The rapid development of new energy automotive industry, so that the global growth in demand for lithium battery power significantly. According to statistics, in 2014 the world's lithium-ion battery shipments reached 10012.8MWH.
Recalling 2014, AESC, BYD and LG lithium battery shipments over 1GWH, to become the world's top three manufacturers of lithium battery. In 2014, about 800MWH Panasonic lithium battery shipments, SDI, LEJ, Hefei, China Xuan and other enterprises Air lithium lithium battery shipments ranking. AESC batteries which are mainly supplied to the Nissan LEAF and the Renault Kangoo ZE, 24AH batteries using NCM ternary system; LG major supplier to the Chevrolet Volt, Renault ZOE, Volvo V 60 Plug-in other models, the use of the ternary system battery; Panasonic major supplier to the Toyota Prius Plug-in, Ford Fusion Energi, Ford C-Max Energi, Volkswagen e-up and other models; the main supply models SDI for BMW I3 and I8 other models, LEJ Mitsubishi I-miev, Mitsubishi Outlander PHEV and other battery powered vehicles.

Our power lithium battery manufacturers mainly concentrated in Guangdong, Shandong, Jiangsu, Zhejiang, Tianjin and other places, the Chinese enterprises in 2014 the basic use of lithium iron phosphate batteries. 2015 began, there have been a number of domestic models such as EV200, Zotye cloud 100, the second generation of BMW's promise, JAC began using ternary battery batteries. There are rumors that a number of domestic car companies are working with Panasonic negotiations, the intentional introduction of its 18650 NCA batteries fitted to their new energy vehicles. So you can see, the future of the ternary material will become the main power lithium battery cathode material. Currently the major battery plant is actively preparing, and expand the sources of procurement of raw materials, for laying the foundation for the upcoming expansion wave.
Ministry data show that two months of 2015, China produced a total of about 12,000 new energy vehicles. Market analysts said that with all levels of government continue to overweight new energy automotive industry policy, this year China's new energy vehicle population is expected to exceed 20 million units, and as a core component of the electric vehicle battery market demand will be explosive, lithium ion battery market officially entered the golden period.
Relevant institutions predict that by 2020, car ownership in China will reach 200 million, according to the new energy vehicles accounted for 2% of the total vehicle computing, when China's new energy vehicle ownership will reach as many as 4 million. According to the estimated growth curve in 2020, China's annual production of new energy vehicles will be about 1 million. According to a conservative car loaded 30kwh battery, the annual consumption of battery power will reach 30 million kwh, the annual consumption of about 50,000 tons cathode material, anode material about 2.5 million tons, about 28,000 tons of electrolyte, separator of about 400 million square meters. At the current yield calculated on battery power, 2020 will be the expansion of our battery 8x power lithium battery industry will usher in the explosive growth and related industries to flourish.

More about UFO Lithium battery: http://www.ufo-battery.com/category/lithium-polymer-battery

LG Chem will provide the lithium battery cell Daimler Smart EV

K-car News LG Chem has released an official statement saying that Daimler has selected the company as a supplier of lithium batteries, will provide Smart EV battery, which models will be launched in 2016.

LG Chem will provide Daimler cell, battery pack assembly by Daimler.
Last August, LG Chemical also received orders for Audi's battery, which provides support for plug-in hybrid vehicle lineup. The company also noted that the future is expected to get more orders from Audi's parent company Volkswagen Group.
In the field of automotive batteries, LG Chemical has gained 20 customers, including General Motors; the company's goal is to overall sales in 2018 will increase to a large battery of 10 trillion won (US $ 9.8 billion) or more.

Thursday, 26 February 2015

The new lithium battery electrolyte substantially increase the efficiency and service life

US Department of Energy scientists at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory have developed a new type of electrolyte, lithium-ion batteries can not only solve the problem of short circuit fire, but also a substantial increase in battery performance and life. The researchers said the discovery could lead to the next generation of more powerful and practical rechargeable batteries, such as lithium sulfur and lithium-air and lithium metal batteries.

US Department of Energy scientists at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory have developed a new type of electrolyte, lithium-ion batteries can not only solve the problem of short circuit fire, but also a substantial increase in battery performance and life. The researchers said the discovery could lead to the next generation of more powerful and practical rechargeable batteries, such as lithium sulfur and lithium-air and lithium metal batteries.
Most rechargeable batteries are lithium ion batteries, lithium or other anode materials, cathode is usually made of graphite. When the battery is connected, the electrons flow between the poles will generate electricity. In order to control electronics, lithium-ion with a positive charge will be via the electrolyte from pole to pole. But the low storage capacity of graphite, which limits the capacity of the lithium-ion battery. So during the 1970s, people developed a lithium-based rechargeable battery cathodes. Chose lithium than graphite because it has more than 10 times more storage capacity. But the problem is that this will lead to dendritic growth of lithium dendrites on the microscopic appearance, so that the battery short-circuit faults. Over the years many people have tried to solve this problem.
There scientists are using a protective coating the anode material, and some others produced the electrolyte additives. Some solutions indeed eliminate dendrites, but also led to a significant reduction in battery power and electricity. There are other solutions to this phenomenon can only slow down, but can not let dendrites stop growing.
Yesterday the media reported that the US Department of Energy by the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory developed a new type of electrolyte which not only the perfect solution dendritic problem, but also help to play 99% of the lithium-ion battery performance, the energy density per unit area increased by 10 times.
Responsible for the study of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory physicist Zhang Jiguang (transliteration) said today widely used in rechargeable lithium-ion battery capacity is approaching its peak, should be to lithium as the anode design re-examined. Based on previous research, Zhang Jiguang and his colleagues decided to use lithium imide salt contains a large double (sulfuryl fluoride) as a new type of battery electrolyte. In addition, they also added a substance is known dimethoxyethane.
Researchers created a circular test cell. Using the new electrolyte and a lithium anode in a battery. It was found that only the presence of a lithium anode produced some smooth lithium node without a large number of fibrous dendrites. After 1000 charge-discharge cycles, the test battery power is still the initial value of 98.4%, the energy density was maintained at 4 mA per square centimeter.
This new electrolyte is very efficient, but also provides a new possibility. Today cell cathode consists essentially of graphite coated with a thin metal sheet or the like of the active material of lithium made. The metal foil is known as the collector, because our mobile phones and other electrical appliances is to obtain the current through it. The need for coating the active material in the above, because by far the majority of the electrolyte during the battery operation will consume lithium ions. However, over 99% of the efficiency of the electrolyte means that only the possibility of creating a negative current collector and the active material is not coated cathode. This is expected to significantly reduce production costs and battery size, it will significantly improve the safety of these batteries.
Researchers are evaluating various additives to further improve the performance of the electrolyte, the lithium ion battery reaches 99.9% efficiency.

Sunday, 1 February 2015

Mapping Mechanical Properties of Lithium/Polymer Battery Composites with Nanoindentation

Introduction

The primary purpose of the work presented herein is to investigate the mechanical properties of a lithium rechargeable battery cathode1-3 by utilizing both the classic XP CSM and newer, ultrafast DCM Express Test methods with a Nano Indenter G200 (Keysight Technologies). Scanning electron microscopy analysis is used as a support to understand the obtained results and gain information about the differences between the two adopted nanoindentation methods.
Particular attention is focused on the analysis of the mechanical and elastic properties of new-generation lithium/polymer electrodes, with the final aim of correlating the life cycle and the number of charge and discharge cycles with the mechanical properties of the electrodes.
By employing an improved grid nanoindentation method4-6, it is possible to perform a statistical deconvolution of the mechanical properties and to understand how many (and which) heterogeneous material phases there are as well as how they interact among themselves.
A final aspect of interestrelated to the lithium/polymer batteries is to investigate the mutual mechanical interactions among the different components in order to gain information on the correlation between chemical and mechanical properties.
A lithium/polymer battery1-3 is made of lithium-polymer conductive composite materials, obtained by embedding lithium salt solutions in opportune polymeric matrix. The polymeric cells have a flexible sheet structure, so external pressure is not needed since the electrode sheets and the separator (dielectric) are laminated one on top of the other.
This kind of battery has the significant advantage of being realized in any form or dimension and, owing to the lack of usefulness of any metal container, the battery could be lighter and shaped to fill the space reserved for it. An example of a cathode’s microstructure is shown in Figure 1a.
Figure 1. (a) Example of a microstructure of a lithium/polymer battery cathode. (b) Principle of property deconvolution using the cumulative distribution function (CDF).
The principal critical issue associated with the functional behavior of such devices, however, is intrinsically related to the strong difference, in terms of mechanical properties, between the two main components of the composite material. In light of this, evaluating the mechanical properties of such materials by using proper nanomechanical testing is extremely important.
Here, we report on an investigation of mechanical properties using an improved statistical nanoindentation method, described in the next section. The developed procedures allow the accurate determination of the elastic and plastic properties of each single phase, together with a careful analysis of the gradients of the same properties within single particles, an aspect that becomes more important when analyzing the mechanical property loss after several charge/discharge cycles.

Statistical Nanoindentation Method

The statistical (or grid) nanoindentation method was originally proposed for cement-based materials4. The method consists of the realization of grids of hundreds of indentation tests, coupled with a statistical analysis (deconvolution) of either the elastic modulus or hardness data for the identification of the different mechanical phases and their distribution over the sampled area.
The deconvolution process is applied to the cumulative distribution function (CDF) of obtained data and utilized to get the weighted sum of hoarded curves that best fit the empirical cumulative probability distribution.
A generic cumulative distribution function (CDF) is given by:

Where Dj(x) is the hoarded probability distribution of the j phase:
with i E [1,N] being
There are 3n-1 unknowns, which are calculated imposing that the theoretical function has a minimal square deviation compared with the empirical cumulative probability curve shown from the indentation tests:
j, sj, fj) from min
Where Fi are the empirical values of the cumulative probability corresponding to the i-class.
The principle of the method is reported in Figure 1b.
Employing the cumulative function is extremely useful when the number of phases in the material under investigation is mostly unknown; in fact, when the cumulative experimental function is built, it is possible to find the polynomial that best fits the cumulative curve (see Figure 1).
The number of phases can be correlated to the polynomial order of the CDF that best fits the experimental cumulative curve. If n is the polynomial order of the CDF, the number of real phases will be equal to n-2 (i.e., the number of flexes).

Experimental Details

A lithium-ion battery cathode, composed of a mixture of active particles (LiMn2O4) and carbon black in a polymeric matrix of polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF), was embedded in epoxy and mirror- polished before mechanical testing. The cathode thickness is about 150µm. Lithium particles exhibit significant variance in their size and internal porosity, as shown in Figure 2, leading to a different response in terms of mechanical properties.
Figure 2. (a) XP CSM nanoindentation grid. (b) DCM Express nanoindentation grid. (c) XP CSM standard – hardness [GPa], calculated at depth 100 nm. (d) DCM Express – hardness [GPa]. (e) XP CSM standard – modulus [GPa], calculated at depth 100 nm. (f) DCM Express – modulus [GPa].
The methodology developed in this work is mostly based on the combined and synergic application of several experimental techniques:
  • Scanning electron microscopy morphological analysis before and after nanoindentation testing
  • Nanoindentation tests with standard XP CSM mode and DCM Express Test mode
  • Improved statistical analysis, consisting of 2D mapping of mechanical properties (elastic modulus E, hardness H) as well as deconvolution of the cumulative distribution functions for the analysis of single-phase mechanical properties
The deconvolution process is performed using a MATLAB-based routine.
XP CSM tests were performed using a Berkovich tip, with a frequency of 45Hz, amplitude of oscillation 2 nm, constant strain rate 0.05s-1, and maximum penetration depth 150nm (which roughly corresponds to 1.0µm of lateral dimension of indents). The results allow the statistical analysis of obtained data at different penetration depths.
A grid of 20x20 indents was realized; spacing between indents was fixed at 10µm. Thus, any mutual interactions between contiguous indentation marks can be assumed to be negligible. Shallower indents would be required for a finer mesh. A full weekend session was needed to complete 1 matrix (400 indents).
DCM ultrafast tests were performed using the Keysight Express Test method and a Berkovich tip, fixing a maximum depth of 80 nm, a spacing of 1.5µm, and an area of analysis of 50x50 µm2. Six different matrices were performed in a single session (roughly 2 hours to realize more than 5000 indents).
The Nano Indenter G200 was completely re-calibrated (area function and frame stiffness), both before and after testing, by performing a series of indentations on a certified amorphous fused-silica reference sample. Detailed microstructural and compositional observation of the same areas of the tests were finally performed by scanning electron microscopy analysis.

Results and Discussion

The obtained mechanical maps (Figures 2c–f) show a good representation of the actual microstructure and phase distribution, in comparison with the scanning electron microscopy images (Figures 2a–b). After a careful analysis of both the load-displacement curves and the scanning electron microscopy images, all the out-of-range tests were clearly correlated to the presence of micro-cracks or porosity in correspondence with the indentations.
The CSM approach mode used in the tests with the XP indenter head is useful to highlight that the mechanical maps at the three different depths (i.e., 50, 100, 150nm) show, with qualitative agreement, different values of hardness and elastic modulus. This is due to the effects of the surrounding compliant matrix on the stiffer particles.
Modulus and hardness values increase (on average) with decreasing indentation depth when looking at the CSM data. The gradients of hardness and modulus over a single particle are reduced with decreasing penetration depth. This is a direct consequence of the relevance of the edge effects, which obviously are reduced as the penetration depth is reduced.
The XP CSM method makes it possible to choose, for the calculation of the average value of hardness and elastic modulus, the range of displacement into the surface. In this work, the ranges selected are 45–55, 95–105, and 145–155.
The XP CSM method permits discrimination between the artifacts of roughness effects, which affect the lower displacement, and of substrate influence, which affect the higher displacement. This second effect is particularly significant in the evaluation of elastic modulus, which is a massive property.
The XP CSM data, however, proved insufficient to achieve reliable deconvolution of the actual mechanical properties, due to the limited number of valid tests that can be obtained in a reasonable amount of time. Use of the Express Test method was then required in order to gain more reliable information on the single-phase hardness and modulus (see Figure 3).
Figure 3. (a) CDF analysis (for the hardness) on 400 indents obtained by the conventional XP CSM method at 100nm depth. (b) CDF analysis (for the elastic modulus) on 400 indents obtained by the conventional XP CSM method at 100nm depth. (c) CDF analysis (for the hardness) on 900 indents obtained by the DCM Express method at 80nm depth. (d) CDF analysis (for the elastic modulus) on 900 indents obtained by the DCM Express method at 80nm depth.
The optimization of the CDF enables the identification of the four most representative phases, described below:
  • A phase representing the lithium particles (the higher values of hardness and the lower values of elastic modulus)
  • A phase representing the matrix (the lower values of hardness and the higher values of elastic modulus)
These first two peaks are characterized by a relatively small standard deviation, a direct suggestion that they really represent the properties of the two main constituents.
  • Two phases representing the matrix influence for the smaller particles, the edge effect, the defects in the particles (the intermediate values), and roughness effects
These last two peaks are characterized by a relatively higher standard deviation, a direct suggestion that they represent the properties of various artifacts.
It is interesting to note how the elastic modulus value achieved with DCM Express Test is higher than the values obtained with XP CSM, due to the higher strain rate applied during indentation and the viscoelastic properties of the polymer matrix.

Summary

Ultrafast DCM Express Test nanoindentation testing performed with a Keysight Nano Indenter G200 is extremely useful for the identification of single-phase mechanical properties and their spatial distribution in lithium/polymer battery composites. Careful mapping of elastic modulus and hardness, together with robust statistical analysis, allows a reliable analysis of the micro structural/mechanical features of such materials.
The effects of applied strain rate and the selection of the optimal penetration depth for lithium/polymer heterogeneous materials is possible by the comparison between XP CSM and DCM Express nanoindentation mapping results.

References

[1] P. Kurzwell, K. Brandt, Secondary batteries – Lithium rechargeable systems (2007).
[2] J. Zhu and K. Zeng, Electrochimica Acta, 15:52–59, 2012.
[3] J. Vetter, P. Novak, M.R Wagner, C. Veit, K.-C. Muller, J.O. Besenhard, M. Winter, M. Wohlfahrt-Mehrens, C. Vogler, and A. Hammouche – Ageing mechanisms in lithium-ion batteries. J Power Sources, 147:269–281, 2005.
[4] G. Constantinides, F.J. Ulm, J. Mech. Phys. Solids 55 (2007) 64–90.
[5] M. Vandamme, F.J. Ulm, P. Fonollosa, Cement Concr. Res. 40 (2010) 14–26.
[6] M. Vandamme, F.J. Ulm, Cement Concr. Res. 52 (2013) 38–52.

Authors

M. Sebastiani, F. Massimi, R. Moscatelli, Edoardo Bemporad (University of Rome “Roma TRE”, Engineering Department, Italy)
D. Rosato (Robert Bosch GmbH)
H.-Y. Amanieu (Robert Bosch GmbH, Duisburg Essen University)

Nanomeasurement Systems from Keysight Technologies

Keysight Technologies offers high-precision, modular nanomeasurement solutions for research, industry, and education. Exceptional worldwide support is provided by experienced application scientists and technical service personnel. Keysight’s leading-edge R&D laboratories are dedicated to the timely introduction and optimization of innovative, easy-to-use nanomeasurement system technologies.

Friday, 30 January 2015

Li(NiCoMn)O2 lithium Era, Chinese Enterprises How to do?

According to a survey in 2014 showed that the development path from the electric energy, the hybrid is not around the last stage in the more distant future, electric cars can become mainstream route, the most critical is to see mileage can follow up. To enhance the pure electric car Mileage solve mileage anxiety, there are many ways, such as the vehicle's weight, more intelligent battery management system, but the most fundamental, or in the battery itself.

January 24, in the new global energy vehicles on the General Assembly in Tianjin to have a battery-themed salon. From the 18th Research Institute of China Electronics Technology Group Corporation, Henan lithium-moving power, Tianjin Lishen, Celgard (products for battery separators) and Boston battery power battery guests to development and technology options were discussed, and in this Sharon reflected in the pieces of information is very interesting.

Rise of LiNiCoMnO2 lithium battery

"Given the choice of lithium battery materials, the fundamental problem is. Greater energy density on energy density, better mileage solve the problem, then the other problems can be overcome."

This is the scene guests to answer when asked about what kind of lithium batteries become more mainstream. LiNiCoMnO2 in energy density lithium iron phosphate lithium relative has a natural advantage, but as technology advances, the security issues have been improved, the tendency within the industry is even more apparent.

Originally domestic battery in the power market, the mainstream is lithium iron phosphate batteries, lithium iron phosphate prices are relatively cheap, good security, large magnification, the charge-discharge cycle life better, is very suitable for the use of electric vehicles in China a few years ago the battery is also mostly gone the route of lithium iron phosphate. However, with the improvement of the ternary lithium battery safety issues, domestic battery manufacturers also began to tend to LiNiCoMnO2 lithium route.

Currently ternary material used is 1: 1 structure, the structure is more stable, more mature preparing ternary material types: 1. Currently ternary lithium production through the electrolyte and a special ceramic membrane technology. Ceramic membrane may be spaced a short circuit in the battery internal short circuit source, thereby significantly improving the safety performance of ternary lithium batteries.

After solving security bottleneck, ternary lithium batteries high energy density, low-cost advantage is revealed itself. Low energy density lithium iron phosphate, the greater the weight of the same capacity heavier volume, seriously affecting the electric car's battery life, while the ternary lithium much better.

In the discharge rate, although not as good as the ternary lithium iron phosphate lithium, but pure electric vehicle battery capacity, most of the electrical power is not too large, the case of high-rate discharge rarely reveal the obvious shortcomings.

In terms of life expectancy, ternary lithium iron phosphate lithium battery is better, but users tend to be more concerned about the initial purchase cost, and less attention to the replacement cost of the battery, and the battery industry trend watching, along with the expansion of production capacity, the price of lithium per year are on the decline, true to the need to replace the battery pack when the high cost may not be imagined.

Advantages and disadvantages shift. Beiqi new energy listed EV200 and ES210 two electric cars to give lithium iron phosphate line, for ternary lithium batteries. In the next period of time, LiNiCoMnO2 rise in power lithium battery market is irresistible. However, Dr. Xiao Chengwei from the 18th Research Institute, also said of the ternary lithium batteries are frequently raised, not only because of high energy density, but also because of its current development has matured, will reappear new future lithium battery type, and then the selection criteria is still the energy density, the number of high bidder.

Advancing international giant Chinese market

In this piece of battery power, Chinese enterprises should have and like other businesses, enjoying Chinese-made low-cost, competitive in price. However, with the new energy automotive industry is optimistic about the industry's giants eyeing China's battery market. Boston is one of the battery, which has factories producing batteries in Changzhou, Jiangsu province, and said it will focus on the Chinese market, increase productivity through cost-sharing approach, reducing the cost of lithium batteries.

International giants compared to domestic enterprises in advanced technology and equipment or to some. And its raw materials from domestic access (According to the site broke the news, and even some raw materials companies sold to foreign firms selling price is lower than the domestic manufacturers), the production base in the country, enjoy cheap Chinese labor and land taxes, and other resources, product prices even can even lower than domestic manufacturers.

And international giants behind strong capital support, not afraid of short-term losses, from a strategic point of view can play a very long period of price wars, which makes domestic enterprises are facing a serious threat.

Power battery industry is developing rapidly, although the overall plate small but great potential foreign giants already eyeing this market, Chinese manufacturers face challenges.

Find Lipo batter manufacturer:click here

Monday, 26 January 2015

How to deal with used batteries?


Battery is one of the most commonly used in daily life goods, cell phones, cameras, alarm clock, doorbell, remote control, etc., are inseparable from the battery. "My family kept a festival than a dozen used batteries, fearing random throw will pollute the environment, but can not find collection points, how to do it?" Recently, who lives in the village of happiness Sun told reporters, do not know how to properly handle home used batteries.

Waste battery recycling bins Hard to Find

"You see, so many used batteries, how to do it? Threw fear pollution of the environment, do not throw it and do not know how to deal with, is really a problem." Speaking of the Sun a feeling annoyed.


According to Mr. Sun introduced a lot of used batteries at home, mainly from children's toys, remote control, razors and other battery models are on the 1st, 5th, 7th. Considering the used batteries will pollute the environment, Sun will be saved in a used batteries together, such as when the family went to the mall, directly to the battery into waste battery recycling bins inside the mall. But most recently, Sun found waste battery recycling bins in some shopping malls are gone, many people do not know where these batteries the throw.

Interview, the reporter learned that the Sun so there really a lot of public concern, many environmentally conscious people consciously collect used batteries, avoid polluting the environment cause harm to humans.


Batteries and cell phone batteries to be treated separately

It is understood that the State Environmental Protection Administration, the National Development and Reform Commission and other departments have issued the "Waste Battery pollution control technology policy" clearly states that the public commonly used 5, 7 disposable batteries do not need to be recycled, but rechargeable batteries and button-type batteries polluted heavy, must focus on recycling by the manufacturer, not the people carelessly throw away.
According to professionals, if it is generally on the 5th or the 1st battery can be processed directly and garbage together, focusing on the recovery of the nickel-cadmium batteries, nickel hydrogen batteries, lithium batteries, including mobile phone batteries, rechargeable batteries, batteries, car electric vehicle batteries (bottles) and the like. If the people have such a waste battery recycling and the manufacturer can contact, or contact the environmental protection department. Another public buy time to see whether the battery "mercury" logo.

When reporters visited the market learned that many big brands are marked "mercury-free alkaline battery" or the word "mercury-free super-carbon batteries" on the battery packaging, while the surface of some cells did not otherwise specified . According to state regulations, if there will be green, "China Environmental Label" on the battery packaging, which is through the Environmental Protection Department of Environmental Certification Center of the mark, with the logo of the battery is generally considered to be environmentally friendly batteries, these batteries can be used and garbage into the processed together.

In addition to household waste batteries directly with household waste, but the reporter also learned that in life there are many recycling of batteries is a must. Such as electric vehicles commonly used lead-acid batteries, used in laptops and other nickel-cadmium batteries must be recycled, we can consult the electric car and computer vendors.

The public is best not to arbitrarily destroy dry appearance package, otherwise easily lead to electrolyte leakage and corrosion around the items. Such as alkaline batteries, the battery electrolyte with a strongly basic electrolyte; another example lithium batteries, the electrolyte solution contains an organic solvent. In addition, waste batteries if flooding over, there will be some contamination, be careful not to just throw the battery farmland and humid place.

Wednesday, 14 January 2015

The Basic Composition of Lithium-ion Battery and Main Materials


The basic composition of lithium-ion battery and main material, lithium-ion battery is a chemical power.

two electrodes cell redox reaction in progress, respectively, must be carried out in two separate areas, which is different from general oxidation-reduction reaction.

When two electrode active material undergo a redox reaction, the desired electron must be transferred from an external circuit, which is different from the micro-cell reaction corrosion process.

In order to meet the above conditions, no matter what the battery series, shape, size, by the following components: an electrode (active material), electrolyte, separator, binder, a housing; in addition to positive and negative electrode lead, the center terminals, insulating material, the safety valve, PTC (positive temperature control terminal) and the like are also an integral part of the lithium ion battery. The following briefly describes the lithium-ion battery in a few major components, namely the electrode material, electrolyte, separator and adhesives.

An electrode material

Is the core of the electrode of the battery, the active material and the conductive framework composition. Positive and negative active material is a source of generating electric energy, the battery is to determine the basic characteristics of an important part. As in lithium-ion batteries, the current commercialization of the cathode active material for lithium-ion batteries are generally LiCoO2, the current research focus is moving without cobalt material efforts, there are some on the market LiMn2O4 cathode materials used and so on.

Non-static electricity inside the power supply unit of positive charge is to move from the negative power supply circuit to the cathode through the internal process of the work done. EMF symbol is ε, in volts (V). Additional power is a form of energy into the electrical energy. To maintain a constant current in the circuit, only the electrostatic force enough, you also need to have a non-static electricity. Power is providing non-static electricity, the positive charge is moved from a low potential at the high potential of the non-electrostatic charge to promote the process of doing work that other forms of energy is converted to electrical energy in the process.

EMF is a physical quantity characterizing the power generating electrical energy. Different supply sources of different non-static electricity, energy conversion forms are also different. Such as chemical electromotive force (batteries, button batteries, batteries, lithium-ion batteries, etc.) is a non-chemical effects of static electricity, the size and power independent of electromotive force size; non-static electricity generator is the magnetic field of the moving charge forces; photo-electromotive force (photovoltaic cells) derived from a non-static electricity within the photoelectric effect; piezoelectric electromotive force (crystal piezoelectric ignition, crystal microphone, etc.) from the polarization caused by mechanical work.

When the external circuit power supply is disconnected, non-static electricity and electrostatic field strength inside the power supply balance, the positive and negative power supply voltage is equal to the electromotive force at both ends. When the external circuit is turned on, the terminal voltage is less than the electromotive force.

With less low prices

Second, the battery assembly process and technology

In accordance with the structural design and the design parameters of lithium batteries, how to prepare the material of the selected battery and efficiently together, and assembled with the design requirements of the battery, the battery production process is to be solved. Thus, the cell production process is reasonable, is related to the assembly of the battery is the key to meet the design requirements of the most important steps affect battery performance.

Reference AA-Cd / Ni, MH / Ni battery production process, combined with the AA-type lithium-ion battery design and performance characteristics, and repeated testing of lithium-ion battery materials, AA lithium-ion battery production process to determine .

AA lithium-ion battery production process involves four steps: preparing tablets
positive and negative; batteries winding; assembly; seal. This is the traditional AA-Cd / Ni battery production process is not much difference, but in the process, the lithium-ion battery is much more complex, and environmental conditions should be much more demanding requirements. Lithium-ion batteries are very strict manufacturing technology, require complex. The following table lists the graphite / LiCoO2 series cylindrical lithium-ion battery manufacturing process related parameters.

Wherein the preparation of the positive and negative electrode slurry, the positive and negative film coating, drying, rolling and other preparation, wound batteries greatest impact on cell performance, a lithium-ion battery manufacturing technology is the most critical step. These processes make the following brief introduction.

To prevent the lithium metal anode mass flow in parts of the copper precipitation caused by security issues, the need for process improvement pole piece, both sides need to use copper foil coated with carbon paste. The main steps of the process of lithium-ion batteries as follows.

positive and negative pulp with special solvents and adhesives were mixed with powdered active substances, even after a high-speed mixing, slurried positive and negative material.

coating the slurry was uniformly coated on the surface of the metal foil, drying, respectively made positive and negative tabs.

a diaphragm assembly according to the positive electrode sheet The negative electrode sheet put away in a sequence from top to bottom of a separator, a battery through the winding core, and then by injecting an electrolyte, sealing and other processes, i.e., to complete the assembly process of the battery, the finished products battery.

into with dedicated battery charging and discharging equipment for finished battery charge and discharge testing, for each battery are only for testing, screening qualified battery products to be manufactured.

From the design requirement, because the case is selected for 18650 lithium AA type (
14mm × 50mm), the cell structure design mainly refers to the size of the battery cover, the tightness of the battery assembly, the electrode sheet size, battery upper air chamber , the ratio of polar substances, such as design. Whether they are designed to directly affect the battery's internal resistance, internal pressure, capacity, performance, and security.


The basic composition of lithium-ion battery and main material, lithium-ion battery is a chemical power.

two electrodes cell redox reaction in progress, respectively, must be carried out in two separate areas, which is different from general oxidation-reduction reaction.

When two electrode active material undergo a redox reaction, the desired electron must be transferred from an external circuit, which is different from the micro-cell reaction corrosion process.

In order to meet the above conditions, no matter what the battery series, shape, size, by the following components: an electrode (active material), electrolyte, separator, binder, a housing; in addition to positive and negative electrode lead, the center terminals, insulating material, the safety valve, PTC (positive temperature control terminal) and the like are also an integral part of the lithium ion battery. The following briefly describes the lithium-ion battery in a few major components, namely the electrode material, electrolyte, separator and adhesives.

An electrode material

Is the core of the electrode of the battery, the active material and the conductive framework composition. Positive and negative active material is a source of generating electric energy, the battery is to determine the basic characteristics of an important part. As in lithium-ion batteries, the current commercialization of the cathode active material for lithium-ion batteries are generally LiCoO2, the current research focus is moving without cobalt material efforts, there are some on the market LiMn2O4 cathode materials used and so on.

Non-static electricity inside the power supply unit of positive charge is to move from the negative power supply circuit to the cathode through the internal process of the work done. EMF symbol is ε, in volts (V). Additional power is a form of energy into the electrical energy. To maintain a constant current in the circuit, only the electrostatic force enough, you also need to have a non-static electricity. Power is providing non-static electricity, the positive charge is moved from a low potential at the high potential of the non-electrostatic charge to promote the process of doing work that other forms of energy is converted to electrical energy in the process.

EMF is a physical quantity characterizing the power generating electrical energy. Different supply sources of different non-static electricity, energy conversion forms are also different. Such as chemical electromotive force (batteries, button batteries, batteries, lithium-ion batteries, etc.) is a non-chemical effects of static electricity, the size and power independent of electromotive force size; non-static electricity generator is the magnetic field of the moving charge forces; photo-electromotive force (photovoltaic cells) derived from a non-static electricity within the photoelectric effect; piezoelectric electromotive force (crystal piezoelectric ignition, crystal microphone, etc.) from the polarization caused by mechanical work.

When the external circuit power supply is disconnected, non-static electricity and electrostatic field strength inside the power supply balance, the positive and negative power supply voltage is equal to the electromotive force at both ends. When the external circuit is turned on, the terminal voltage is less than the electromotive force.

With less low prices

Second, the battery assembly process and technology

In accordance with the structural design and the design parameters of lithium batteries, how to prepare the material of the selected battery and efficiently together, and assembled with the design requirements of the battery, the battery production process is to be solved. Thus, the cell production process is reasonable, is related to the assembly of the battery is the key to meet the design requirements of the most important steps affect battery performance.

Reference AA-Cd / Ni, MH / Ni battery production process, combined with the AA-type lithium-ion battery design and performance characteristics, and repeated testing of lithium-ion battery materials, AA lithium-ion battery production process to determine .

AA lithium-ion battery production process involves four steps: preparing tablets
positive and negative; batteries winding; assembly; seal. This is the traditional AA-Cd / Ni battery production process is not much difference, but in the process, the lithium-ion battery is much more complex, and environmental conditions should be much more demanding requirements. Lithium-ion batteries are very strict manufacturing technology, require complex. The following table lists the graphite / LiCoO2 series cylindrical lithium-ion battery manufacturing process related parameters.

Wherein the preparation of the positive and negative electrode slurry, the positive and negative film coating, drying, rolling and other preparation, wound batteries greatest impact on cell performance, a lithium-ion battery manufacturing technology is the most critical step. These processes make the following brief introduction.

To prevent the lithium metal anode mass flow in parts of the copper precipitation caused by security issues, the need for process improvement pole piece, both sides need to use copper foil coated with carbon paste. The main steps of the process of lithium-ion batteries as follows.

positive and negative pulp with special solvents and adhesives were mixed with powdered active substances, even after a high-speed mixing, slurried positive and negative material.

coating the slurry was uniformly coated on the surface of the metal foil, drying, respectively made positive and negative tabs.

a diaphragm assembly according to the positive electrode sheet The negative electrode sheet put away in a sequence from top to bottom of a separator, a battery through the winding core, and then by injecting an electrolyte, sealing and other processes, i.e., to complete the assembly process of the battery, the finished products battery.

into with dedicated battery charging and discharging equipment for finished battery charge and discharge testing, for each battery are only for testing, screening qualified battery products to be manufactured.

From the design requirement, because the case is selected for 18650 lithium AA type (
14mm × 50mm), the cell structure design mainly refers to the size of the battery cover, the tightness of the battery assembly, the electrode sheet size, battery upper air chamber , the ratio of polar substances, such as design. Whether they are designed to directly affect the battery's internal resistance, internal pressure, capacity, performance, and security.